Hard anodizing plating line

Hard anodizing plating line:

Hard anodizing plating line

Hard anodizing plating line

Hard anodized aluminum main purpose is to improve variety performance of aluminum and aluminum alloys, including corrosion resistance, abrasion resistance, weather resistance, insulation and absorption and so on. It applies to the deformation of aluminum alloy, and it may also be used for pressure casting aluminum parts. Mostily we know it is perfect of aluminum pot manufacturer.

Hard anodizing full name and hard anodization treatment.

Hard anodizing plating line technical method:

Hard anodizing electrolytic has many ways, such as: sulfuric acid, oxalic acid, propylene glycol, sulfosalicylic acid and other inorganic salts and organic acids. Thepower supply can be divided into DC rectifier, AC power supply, AC-DC superimposed anodizing rectifier, superimposed pulse and pulse power supply and so few, the widely used as below:
(1) Sulfuric acid hard anodic oxidation.
(2) Oxalic acid hard anodic oxidation.
(3) Mixed acid type hard anodization.
Among them, sulfuric acid is to be more widely applied for hard anodizing plating line.

Aluminum pot hard anodizing

Aluminum pot hard anodizing

Alunimun hard anodization

Alunimun hard anodization

Hard anodizing plating line working principle:

Pure sulfuric acid type hard anodizing general principles compare with normal oxidation is no essential difference, if it is a mixed acid type will have attachedreaction. The reaction is essentially:
1. Cathode reaction:
4H + + 4e = 2H2 ↑
2. Anode reaction:
4OH – - 4e = 2H2O + O2 ↑
3. Aluminum oxidation: the anode precipitated oxygen at the atomic state, more active than molecular state, more likely to react with the aluminum:
2A1 + 3O → A12O3

Hard anodizing plating line characteristic:

Electrolysis act at a temperature of -10 ℃ ~ + 5 ℃ electrolyte. Because hard anodizing the resulting oxide film having a higher resistance to oxidation will directly affect the strength of the current. In order to obtain a thick oxide film, need to increase the external voltage, its purpose is to eliminate the large resistance impact, making the current density to keep constant, but when current large will produce intense heat phenomenon, together with large heating when producing anodizing film will release a lot of heat, so that workpiece temperature increasing temperatures will accelerate the dissolution of the oxide film, the oxide film can not be thickened.
Solution: use our special design hard anodizing plating line and rectifier.

Stainless steel electrolytic polishing

Stainless steel electrolytic polishing:

Stainless steel electrolytic polishing machine mainly for stainless steel parts surface brightness treatment. Stainless steel electro polishing use workpiece as an anode, insoluble metal as cathode, 2 poles immersed in the bath at the same time, with direct current to generate selective anodic dissolution, the workpieces surface will gradually leveling, so as to increase surface brightness effect.

Rectifier: 3 phase 380V, rectifier current, according to customer workpiece size. Operating voltage 8-20v.

Stainless steel electrolytic polishing principle:

Stainless steel electrolytic polishing major recognized theory is mucosal theory. Which is: the metal ion break away from workpiece with phosphoric acid form a layer of phosphate film adsorbed on workpieces surface, this mucous membrane is thinner in the projections while thicker in recess, because the projections high current density then dissolved quickly, with the mucous membrane fluidity, changing irregularities, the roughened surface is gradually become leveling process.

Stainless steel electro polishing advantages:

⑴ Same color of inside and outside, gloss retention, mechanical polishing can not get the recess be leveled.
⑵ High production efficiency, low cost.
⑶ Increase surface corrosion resistance, suitable for all stainless steel.

Stainless steel electroplating polishing conditions required:

Power waveform requirements are not strict, can choose of SCR type or high frequency plating rectifier.

Electropolishing tank and mating facilities (anode rod):

Hard PVC plates welded together. Bath top 3 electrode rods, the middle of movable anode rod, then connect with anode (or positive), both sides as cathode pole, connect with power cathode (negative).

Facilities of heating and cooling equipment:

① Heating can use quartz heating tube, or titanium heating tube.
② Cooling can use coil tube, heating coil can heat and cool.

Stainless steel polishing machine hanger:

It is best to select titanium hanger, because titanium is more resistant to corrosion, long serve life, titanium ions has no effect on the bath. It is suggested not to use copper hanger, because when copper ions into stainless steel surface will generate a layer of bad bonding force copper layer, then impact the polishing quality.

Anode and cathode materials:

Cathode and anode rods adopt copper or brass, brass tube length plus 20cm longer than electrolytic bath, cathode plate use lead plate, fixed to the cathode rod, height plus 10 cm than tank height, lead plate width decided according to bath length, generally 10cm, 20cm.

Stainless steel polishing machine mainly for stainless steel parts surface brightness treatment. Stainless steel workpiece are 200 series, 300 series, 400 series material, each serie has the targeted electro polishing chemical solution.

Stainless steel electrolytic polishing process: degreasing – washing – anti rust – washing – electrolytic polishing – washing – passivation – packaging.
Stainless steel electrolytic polishing

Stainless steel electrolytic polishing

Hard oxidation rectifier

Hard oxidation

Hard oxidation and ordinary oxidation difference: Hard anodized oxide film has 50% penetration inside the aluminum products, an another 50% attached to the aluminum workpieces surface, so after a hard anodizing exterior of the product size becomes bigger, the hole becomes smaller, while after hard oxidation the external dimensions of ordinary oxidation becomes smaller and the hole becomes bigger.

Hard oxidation colors:

Hard oxidation colors usually made of black and oxidation film true colour (natural color), true color is determined by the aluminum alloy composition, even the same type of aluminum ( for example 6061-T6), and different manufacturers, the color of the oxide film is different, if Aluminum use same manufacturer the same type of material maybe colors are different, and therefore, the true nature of the oxide film is generally used for the internal parts of the product.

Hard oxidation aluminum advantages:

1, Aluminum hard anodizing surface hardness can even up to HV500, which can compare to chrome plating;
2, The hard anodizing film thickness from 25 to 250um;
3, Have features of strong adhesion, according to the generated hard anodized oxidation characteristics: hard oxidation film has a 50% penetration in aluminum inside,
50% adhered to the surface of an aluminum alloy;
4, Good insulation: breakdown voltage up to 2000V;
5, Great wear resistance: for if copper content more than 2% in aluminum alloy, its maximum wear index of 3.5mg/1000rpm. All other alloys wear index should not exceed than 1.5mg/1000rpm;
6, Non-toxic: the oxidation film and for anodic oxide film produced by an electrochemical process there is no toxic to humans.

So now a lot of industry in order to facilitate machining and reduce the weight of products, and environmental protection requirements, some hard oxidation aluminum alloy parts products are currently to replace stainless steel, and conventional spray, plating treatment process.

Hard oxidation real case:

This customer use our Hard oxidation pulse power supply for aluminum pot hard oxidation, the result is very good. You can see the below surface, the hardness also very good, there is no any scratch on surface even use a knife to cut the aluminum pot hard anodizing surface.

2000A90V Hard oxidation rectifier, using our power supply you can get very good treatment even 2 & 7 series aluminum grade.

Oxidation pulse power supply

Oxidation pulse power supply

Hard oxidation pot using our pulse rectifier

Hard oxidation pot using our pulse rectifier

Hard oxidation pot using our pulse power supply

Hard oxidation pot using our pulse power supply

Copper plating line

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Copper plating line

Copper plating line products

Copper plating line process:

Electroless copper plating line is a process for printed circuit board manufacturing, often called sink-copper or PTH, which is a self-catalytic redox reactions. First treatment with activator agent, adsorbed on insulating substrate layer surface of active particles usually as metal palladium particles (palladium is a very expensive metal, the price is high and has been rising, to reduce cost now practical colloidal copper process is in the application), copper ions are first reduced on these active palladium metal particle, which these reduced metal copper nuclei itself has become a copper ion catalyst layer, so that copper reduction proceed on these new copper nuclei surfaces.

Electroless copper plating: traditional copper plating mostly as vertical lines, process are similar, the general process is:
Cleaning → Neutralization → Degreasing → Microetching → Pre-ditching → Activation → Chemical copper plating.

The main components are cathode and anode in copper plating line:

Cathode: giving rise to the starting & end a couple of stainless steel rod having a pair of electrical contact ring, copper brush is pressed against the copper ring in order to get good contact, connected to the negative pole of rectifiers. By retaining roller, the cathode cut off contact with plating solution.
Copper plating line anode: 2 titanium plate installed in plating bath, these two anode pieces connect with positive rectifies pole by electricity cable directly. Anode soaked in chemical plating solution.

Chemical copper plating line principle:

Electroless copper plating on the surface of the catalytic activity by the action of a reducing agent to precipitate the copper ions reduced:
Reduction (cathode) reactions: CuL2 + + 2e- → Cu + L
Oxide (anode) reaction: R → O + 2e-
Thus, with hypophosphite as a reducing agent for chemical copper plating main reaction is: 2H2PO2- + Cu2 + + 2OH- → Cu + 2H2PO3 + H2 ↑
In addition to the establishment of the thermodynamics, chemical reactions must also meet dynamics conditions. Like other chemical copper as the catalytic reaction thermal energy is required to cause a reaction, which is why only when the chemical bath plating deposition get speed plating under certain temperature. Theoretically copper plating speed to express by increasing the concentration of the reaction product of reactant concentrations and reduce the speed. In actual use, the electroless copper plating solution containing certain additives, its have too many factors to effect, the situation becomes too complicated. Thus, most of the electroless copper plating dynamics research is limited to the most basic component of the bath at the start.

And copper plating line rectifiers normally as following specification:

TypeLength (mm)Width (mm)Height (mm)Weight (kg)
50A/12V3503501508
100A/12V42035015010.5
200A/12V45045020018
300A/12V50050022021
500A/12V50050020025
1000A/12V55050028038
1500A/12V60050075060
2000A/12V60050085088
3000A/12V650700850140
4000A/12V6507001100190
5000A/12V7007001450230
6000A/12V7007001700300

Rectifiers for Copper Plating Line

Rectifiers for Copper Plating Line

Hard chrome plating equipment

Hard chrome plating equipment technical process:

Hard chrome plating equipment

Hard chrome plating equipment

A.Introduction of hard chrome plating equipment technical process:

Hard chrome plating equipment used for plating a layer of thick chrome film on various kinds of base material, which its thickness normally above 20μm, by mean of this, to make use of chromium character to improve plating parts hardness, wear resistance, thermostability, anti-corrosion performance.

Hard chrome plating equipment technical features:
1)Cathode current efficiency up to 50%~65%, deposition speed very fast;
2)High hardness plating layer (900~1200 HV), present uniform and intensive net-type fissure, the wear resistance performance is very good;
3)Plating solution disperse capacity good, plating film layer uniform, and not easy to have rough tumour phenomenon, the appearance of chrome layer bright and smooth;
4)Bonding force between chrome plating layer and base material very strong, while pre-plating treatment processes is similar with traditional electroplating technical processes, but operation simple than traditional one;
5)Allowed range of trivalent chromium content is more wide, normally, there is no need to stop production to deal with trivalent chromium;
6)There is no fluoride, no rare earth element in electro plating solution, and no low current area corrosion to plating parts.

Hard chrome plating equipment has a widely application, such as: mechanical mould, cylinder piston, measure tools, cutting and pulling tools etc.. Its another usage is to repair wear down parts and over cutting parts, to make these parts can be used repeat.

B. Hard chrome plating equipment flow:

Examine→Degreaing→Water rinse→Antipole→hard chrome plating→Water rinse→Examine

C. Hard chrome electroplating equipment technical parameter:

1, CrO3: 220~250g/l;
2, SO42-: 2.2~2.5g/l;
3, Cr3+: 2~5g/l;
4, Plating solution temp: 50~55℃;
5, Cathode current density: 30~60A/dm2.

D. Hard chrome plating equipment operation regulations:

1, Examine plating parts size before plating, machining surface conditions, to calculate electro plating time according to electroplating layer thickness.
2, Control well for plating solution working condition, observe frequently, watch temperature changing, plating solution liquid level changing, operation carefully, and fill in the operation record. Add chemical solution according to testing result, correction the electroplating solution.
3, After plating to check plating layer quality, dimensions, and clean up.
4, The working site shall be cleaned and cleared, tools and devices shall be placed properly.

ABS plastic chrome plating machine

ABS plastic chrome plating machine technical processes:

ABS chrome plating machine

ABS plastic chrome plating machine Pre-treatment:

Degreasing→(Acid deoiling) hydrophilic→Coarsening →Neutralization→(10% hydrochloric acid)presoak→Palladium→
Activation (dispergation)→(Reduction nickel) Chemical nickel

ABS plastic chrome plating machine After treatment:

(5% hydrochloric acid) Activation→(Pre- copper plating) pyrophosphate copper→(5% sulfuric acid) Activation→
Acid copper→Half brightness nickel→Brightness nickel→Nickel seal→Presoak→Chrome plating→Baking

ABS Plastic plating chrome machine cautions before plating:

1, (Alkaline) degreasing:

Main component constituted by alkali metal compound, such as: sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate,
potassium carbonate, potassium phosphate etc. Its role is to remove grease or release agent on ABS.

2, (Acid deoiling) hydrophilic:

left;”>The main components are sulfuric acid and hydrophilic agent.The function of sulfuric acid is
neutralization and degreasing; hydrophilic agent is used to provide ABS surface adsorption of hydrophilic
groups, which is beneficial to Coarsening step later.

3, Coarsening:

The major components as chromic acid and sulfuric acid, wetting agents and anti-fogging agents are auxiliary agents. Chromic acid and sulfuric acid which is to get rid of B component from ABS surface to form many tiny pits in favor of Palladium and nickel plating process later; Coarsening effect will direct impact whether can plating layer and binding force between plating coating layer and ABS material body. Wetting agents action is for more effective erosion to ABS material surface, then improve degree ofroughening; antifogging agent role is to prevent the generation of chrome fog, and the environmental impact of the leak-plated of black spots.

Nickel plating machine

Nickel plating machine:

Mainly used for decorative protective coatings. For iron matrix, nickel plating coating film is cathodic type coating. Because of its high porosity, so shall use copper layer as underlying or adopt multi-layer nickel plating. Nickel plating coating layer not bright from the ordinary plating solution, but easy to polish.
Using Ssome brightener can achieve mirror-bright nickel layer. Which is widely used in automobile, bicycle, watch, medical equipment, instrumentation, and household hardware and so on. Part of sulfate-containing sulotion called as sulfate – chloride solution, known as “watt” nickel plating solution, and it is the most widely used in the production.

Nickel plating machine principle:

A method by electrochemically action, deposited layer of nickel on ferrous metal or non-ferrous workpiece surface. Can be used as a surface coating, but mainly for chromium base, to prevent corrosion and increase wear resistance, gloss and appearance looking.Nickel plating is widely used in machinery, equipment, instruments, medical equipment, home appliances, and other manufacturing industries. Use parts for as cathode, pure nickel plate as anode, hang into the solution configurated by nickel sulfate, sodium chloride and boric acid as electrolyte to conduct plate. If add naphthalene disulfonic acid sodium, saccharin, coumarin, p-toluene sulfonamides brightener in the plating solution, can be directly obtained brightness nickel plating layer without mechanical polishing.

Nickel plating in PCB:

Befor gold plating – electroless nickel.
In PCB production, electroless nickel plating is generally done for the next step of gold, of course, there is also a simple nickel plating. Why should the first layer of metal nickel plated before gold plating? It depends on the reactivity of metals, after nickel plating, to ensure the stability of product.

Nickel plating machine

Nickel plating machine

Anodizing machine

Anodizing machine

Anodizing machine for aluminum:

Characteristic of pure aluminum:

Al is amphoteric metal, which is chemically active and easy to generate oxide in air, while aluminum oxide can inhibit further oxidation, the higher purity of aluminum, the more uniform film, and more excellent corrosion resistance. Easy to act with reducing agent. But anti-corrosion to oxidizing agent. Aluminum is passive state to concentrated nitric acid.

A Definition:

Aluminum in the ambient atmosphere will produce a layer of oxide film. Aluminum substrate attached to anode current to generate hard and transparent surface layer in electrolyte, this electro chemical reaction is called as “anodizing”, which is finished by anodizing machine.

B Features of anodizing:

Transparent, close to the glass; Insulation, anti-static; Changeable color appearance; Fully integrated with the aluminum surface and does not peel off. NOTE: Passivation is made for stainless steel surface treatment, as the same purpose to increase the corrosion resistance.

C Anodizing machine application functions:

Increase corrosion resistance; Increase abrasion resistance; Improve the adhesion of the substrate and coating; Provide an insulating surface; Insulation; Protection polishing surface and machined surface; Improve appearance. Note: After the oxidation can be painted, but generally do not suggest to do this process, because it is uneconomical. Usually to realize color when oxidation, basically except white, other colors are available by this deal, and it will not affect the film thickness (or the thickness of the substrate). These are functions of anodizing machine.

D Anodizing machine technical processes:

Anodizing machine

Anodizing machine

In briefly, anodizing machine divided into 2 big steps: Pre-treatment and After treatment.

Pre-treatment: Include degreasing, etching, chemical polishing, etc. Oxidation: once the surface is prepared, the oxidation film is built. After treatment: porous anodizing film can be colored in this stage. Sealing.