Shows all kinds of rectifier knowledge in rectifier industry, of course, the mostly usage is in plating machine area.

Electroforming

Electroforming total view:

Electroforming is a special processing method which use principle of metal electrowinning to accurately replicate some complex or special shape of the workpiece. It is a special application of electroplating. Electroforming is invented by Russian scholar Б.С. Jacobi in year of 1837.

Electroforming application and principle:

Initially mainly used for copying and printing plate metal artwork, in the end of 19th century for the manufacture of record stamper, later gradually expand the scope of application. The basic principle is to be make desired shape of the original mold as a cathode advanced, while an electroforming material as anode, with the same salt solution which anode material put into, through the DC power supply. Under electrolysis, the original mold surface gradually deposited metal electroformed layer is removed from the solution reaches the desired thickness, the electroformed layer separated from the original model, it will be awarded corresponding shape of metal copies of original mold.

Electroforming can be divided into three categories, namely decorative plating (with nickel – chromium, gold, silver as the representative), protective electroforming (galvanized represented) and functional plating (hard chrome plating represented). Electroforming is one of functions of plating by using of electroplating method to manufacture the product.

Electroforming

Electroforming

Electroforming technical processes:

Modern technology, the same principle of electro plating. In the casting solution, the casting part as cathode, after surface activation treatment there is a conductive layer, on-current, in the electric field electrophoresis metal gradually deposited on the die castings can be removed after get a certain thickness. Then grinding and welding, surface treatment, it becomes a beautiful piece of jewelry electroforming.

Electroplating rectifier

Electroplating rectifier

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Electroplating rectifier greenization:

Electroplating rectifier system greenization have profound meaning:
The first is significant energy-saving, which means save power generation capacity, while power generation is an important cause of environmental pollution, so power saving can reduce environmental pollution; and secondly these power can not (or less) generates pollution to power grid, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has developed a series of standards such as IEC555, IEC917, IECl000. In fact, many power electronic energy-saving equipment, often turn into sources of pollution on the grid: inject to grid of serious harmonic current, make the total power factor drops, so many glitches coupling grid voltage spikes and peaks, even chipping and distortion. In end of 20th century, a variety of active filter and active compensator was born, with a variety of power factor correction method. Laid the foundation for mass production of a variety of green switching power supply in 21 century.

Modern power electronics technology is the basis for development of electroplating rectifier:

Modern power electronics is the basis for development of electroplating rectifier technology. With the continuous emergence of new power electronic devices and adapted to more higher switching frequency circuit topology, modern power supply technology driven by real needs will be rapid developped. In traditional application technique, due to the performance limits of power leaving, switching power supply device performance is affected. Greatly put to good use of characteristics of various power devices, minimize device performance impact on switching mode rectifier, new power circuit topology and new control technology enables power switching at zero voltage or zero current state, which can greatly increase the operating frequency, improve work efficiency of switching mode power supply, then design excellent performance switch mode power supply.

More electroplating rectifier waiting to be developed:

In short, power electronics and switching electroplating rectifier technology continues to move forward due to application requirements, the emergence of new technologies will make many applications replacement products, but also to open up more and new applications. High frequency rectifier switching power supply, modular, digital, greenization etc., will mark these technologies as mature, to realize high efficiency and high-quality electricity application combined. In recent years, with the development of the communications industry, switch power technology as the core of communications switching power supply, only the domestic market demand of more than 20 billion yuan, has attracted a large number of scientific and technical personnel to develop research. Switching power supply instead of linear power and phase control power supply is the trend and will soon be developed. There are many other in switching power supply technology as the core of a dedicated power supply, industrial power are waiting for people to develop.

Electroplating rectifier

Electroplating rectifier

IGBT rectifier

IGBT rectifier

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Briefly of IGBT rectifier:

Through comprehensive analysis of the equivalent circuit to simplify explain cumbersome IGBT working principle and the role, and noted IGBT characteristics. It can be said, IGBT is a switching device either on or off, it combine both advantages of of MOSFET’s high input impedance and GTR’s low conduction voltage drop.

IGBT Rectifier constitution:

IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor), constituted of BJT (bipolar transistor) and MOS (insulated gate field effect transistor) composite full-controlled type voltage-driven power semiconductor devices, with high input impedance MOSFET and GTR’s low on-state voltage drop down. GTR saturation pressure drop, carrier high current density, but the drive current is large; MOSFET drive power is very small, fast switching speed, but large conducting voltage drop, the carrier density is small.
IGBT combines advantages of these two devices, the driving power is small and the saturation while voltage drop low. Very suitable for the DC voltage of 600V and above, variable flow systems such as AC motor, inverter, switching power supply, lighting circuits, traction drive and other fields.
Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) is the youngest one of high voltage switch family. A 15V high-impedance voltage source facilitate control current flow through the device which can achieve a lower control power to control the high current.

IGBT rectifier principle and action:

Simply to say, IGBT is a switch, either on or off, how to control its on or off, by the gate-source voltage, when the gate-source plus +12V (greater than 6V, generally take 12V to 15V) the IGBT conducting, gate source voltage is not applied or is applied negative pressure, IGBT turn-off, a negative pressure purpose is reliably shut off. No amplified voltage IGBT function, turn on can be seen as the wire, other as open circuit when disconnected.

IGBT rectifier conduct/insulation electricity:

IGBT has three terminals, namely, G, D, S, G and S ends apply voltage, the internal electrons transfer (characteristic of the semiconductor material, which is the reason why use semiconductor material as power electronic switch), originally correspondence of positive and negative ions, semiconductor material in neutral, but applied voltage, electrons under the influence of voltage, accumulation to one side, forming a layer of conductive channel, because the electron is electrically conductive, becomes a conductor . If remove applied both ends voltage of GS, this layer of conductive channel disappear, do not conduct electricity, and become insulators. This is pass of IGBT rectifier.

IGBT rectifier

Electrophoresis power source

Electrophoresis power source

Electrophoresis power source selection:

Electrophoresis power source is a key equipment for electrophoresis coating machinery, so appropriate selection of electrophoresis power source capacity, can significantly improve the cost efficiency ratio of electrophoretic coating equipment. So in the design of electrophoretic coating machine, electrophoresis power source choice is particularly important. Here is a brief description of electrophoresis power supply selection, hope you can have right choice for electrophoresis rectifier.

Electrophoretic coating is to make the to be coated (workpiece) immersed in an aqueous coating as one electrode (anode or cathode), set up another corresponding electrode (cathode or anode), between the two poles applied a DC electric field, by physical and chemical effects generated by electric field, make the coating particle coated on the workpieces surface uniformly. This is an advanced, modern new painting technologies.

Electrophoresis power source is core for electrophoretic coating equipment:

Based electrophoretic painting working principle, electrophoresis power source is DC power supply, is a key equipment for electrophoretic coating equipment, there is no electrophoresis if there is no DC power supply. If select DC power supply capacity properly, can significantly improve the cost effect. If choose a large electrophoresis power supply capacity, will increase the production cost of equipment, so as to improve equipment installation power, resulting in waste. On the contrary, it makes the entire production line not fully utilized, productivity can not be improved. If need large on-line coating, electrophoresis current is too large, resulting in a DC power supply over current protection, can not be normal production. So in the design work of the electrophoretic coating equipment, electrophoresis power source choice is particularly important.

Electrophoresis power source election based on:

Key features and specifications of the electrophoresis power source need to fully meet the electrophoretic coating process requirements. Based on the following aspects:

1) Inherent characteristics of electrophoretic paint;

a, Electrophoretic paint “breakdown voltage”;
b, Electrophoretic paint “threshold voltage”;
c, Electrophoretic paint, “Coulomb efficiency.”

2) To be coated workpiece surface area (internal and external surface area);
3) Complexity of the workpiece and shape of the workpiece.
Electrophoresis power supply

Electrophoresis power supply

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Electrophoresis power source

Electrophoresis power source

12v dc power supply

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12v dc power supply Category:

12v dc power supply switching power supply circuit structure of variety configuration:

(1) By driving points, there are self-excited and separately-excited type.
(2) According to the working mode DC/DC converter points:
① Single-end excitation and reverse, push-pull, half-bridge, full-bridge, etc;
② Reduce voltage, increase voltage and reduce/increase voltage type.
(3) Based on the circuit points, there are resonant and non-resonant.

(4) 12v dc power supply control points:

① Pulse width modulation (PWM) type;
② Pulse frequency modulation (PFM) formula;
③ 12v dc power supply PWM and PFM mixed type.
(5) According to power supply whether isolated and feedback control signal coupling points, there are isolated, non-isolated and transformer-coupled, optical coupling type and so on.
The above combination may constitute a variety of ways of 12v dc power supply switching mode power supply. So designers need a variety of ways according to the characteristics combined to produce meet the needs of high-quality switching mode power supply.

12v dc power supply control method:

Based on TRC control theory, there are three ways:
A, Pulse width modulation (Pulse Width Modulation, abbreviated as PWM) Switching period constant, by changing pulse width to change the duty cycle.
B, Pulse frequency modulation (abbreviated as PFM) Conduction pulse width constantly, by varying the switching working frequency to change the duty cycle.
C, Combined modulation Conduction pulse width and switching working frequency are not fixed, each can be changed, it is more than two ways of mixing. High-frequency switching power supply does not need to greatly improve the switching speed can be theoretically reduced to zero switching losses, also the noise is small.

12v dc power supply

12v dc power supply

Pulse power supply gold plating

Pulse power supply gold plating

Pulse power supply gold plating superiority:

The superiority of pulse power supply plating can be better reflected especially on gold plating. Pulse power supply gold plating could obtain dense crystal electroplating layer coating, that not only significantly increased its finish degree, corrosion resistance, weldability, wear resistance, high temperature capability and have a greater degree of discoloration, but also greatly saved gold.

Pulse power supply gold plating

Pulse power supply gold plating

Someone think no need pulse power supply gold plating:

But there is a view: that barrel gold electro plating using pulse power supply of little significance to improve the density, which their reason is that the barrel plating machine tumbling action make the coarse crystals can not grow, therefore can get dense electroplating layer coating, bright, so no need use a pulse power supply. This view seems not unreasonable, but that is biased. Because barrel plating machine tumbling just a mechanical polishing action, its limited capacity and can not replace the role of fine-grained action generated large pulse current by electro chemical polarization. Therefore, if there is high quality requirements of gold plating, still need to use pulse rectifier gold plating, which this is the best control method outside the plating tank.

Vivid explain to tell you why need pulse power supply gold plating:

For example, now integrated lead frame, linear tube shell, connectors and other parts the pulse power supply barrel plating has been very common.
Also, there is gradually formed a consensus that gold plating bottom plating – nickel layer electroplating should also adopts pulse rectifier plating. The reason is pulse-plated nickel layer of stress, density, uniformity is far superior to the DC rectifier nickel plating, which undoubtedly will lay a solid foundation for gold electro plating, thus greatly improving the functional indicators of gold plating.
For example, one electronic products factory choosing pulse rectifier plating for products gold plating, and the thickness of the gold electro plating layer meet the requirements, which plating workpieces appearance is also good, but still can not meet the 380 ℃ ~ 450 ℃ temperature assessment test. Then they hire experts to help them to solve the problem. One of the measures is to use a pulse power supply nickel barrel plating instead of DC power supply, of course, there are other measures, such as strict operation, improved Pulse power supply gold plating liquid formulations and so on.

The parameters pulse power supply gold plating adopt can refer to the following:

Single pulse: 10% to 20% duty cycle (turn on: 0.1ms ~ 0.2ms, turn off: 0.8ms ~ 0.9ms), pulse frequency 900Hz ~ 1000Hz, the average current density equal to or slightly larger than the DC power source plating;
Reverse pulse: positive pulse duty cycle of 20% (turn on: 0.2ms, turn off: 0.8ms), working time 100ms, the average current density equal to or slightly larger than the DC rectifier plating;
Reverse pulse duty cycle of 10% (on 0.1 ms, off 0.9ms), working time 10ms, an average current density of the reverse peak current density of the positive peak current density of 1 to 2 times, obtained by calculating backwards.

But many people believe that when acidic gold plating, because the gold anode insolubility, reverse peeling double pulse does not work, so the use of the double pulse is superfluous. In fact, the double pulse reverse reeling gold plating only improve the uniformity small, but it can not say that is superfluous, or can not say there is no significance. There is a small experiment may indicate the presence or absence of other dual pulse gilded significance. In the same acidic gold plating solution, the same current density, respectively, DC power source, single pulse, double pulse at the same time each plating a test piece. Comparison of three test pieces, can see clearly that the plating coating brightness is incrementally from DC to single pulse and then to double pulse power supply gold plating.

This shows dual pulse reverse stripping gold plating for improving the crystallization is advantageous, otherwise adopting double pulse plating will not more bright than the single pulse. This should be due to that though reverse pulse not achieve anodic dissolution, but can play the role of electro-polishing, which facilitates the subsequent cathodic deposition coating pulse period is more detailed, bright.

Further, reverse pulse may also have the plating coating be more fully in the subsequent recrystallization cathode pulse period effect, and thus the plating layer coating will be finer grain.

But the reverse pulse work time shall not too long (less than 1/10 of the positive pulse time), otherwise the deposition rate is slow. Also, reverse pulse peak current density should not be less than the positive pulse, otherwise reverse electro-polishing effect is not obvious. Double pulse barre plating as well. Decorative gold plating barrel plating time is short, thin plating coating, good brightness Ni underlying coating nonfunctional requirements, so generally not suggest the use of pulse power supply plating, in order to save the cost of expensive pulse rectifier. But production practice shows that, use double pulse power supply gold plating, if select parameter properly, plating time can be shortened more than 1/3, so as to achieve the effect of the save gold.

Hard oxidation rectifier

Hard oxidation

Hard oxidation and ordinary oxidation difference: Hard anodized oxide film has 50% penetration inside the aluminum products, an another 50% attached to the aluminum workpieces surface, so after a hard anodizing exterior of the product size becomes bigger, the hole becomes smaller, while after hard oxidation the external dimensions of ordinary oxidation becomes smaller and the hole becomes bigger.

Hard oxidation colors:

Hard oxidation colors usually made of black and oxidation film true colour (natural color), true color is determined by the aluminum alloy composition, even the same type of aluminum ( for example 6061-T6), and different manufacturers, the color of the oxide film is different, if Aluminum use same manufacturer the same type of material maybe colors are different, and therefore, the true nature of the oxide film is generally used for the internal parts of the product.

Hard oxidation aluminum advantages:

1, Aluminum hard anodizing surface hardness can even up to HV500, which can compare to chrome plating;
2, The hard anodizing film thickness from 25 to 250um;
3, Have features of strong adhesion, according to the generated hard anodized oxidation characteristics: hard oxidation film has a 50% penetration in aluminum inside,
50% adhered to the surface of an aluminum alloy;
4, Good insulation: breakdown voltage up to 2000V;
5, Great wear resistance: for if copper content more than 2% in aluminum alloy, its maximum wear index of 3.5mg/1000rpm. All other alloys wear index should not exceed than 1.5mg/1000rpm;
6, Non-toxic: the oxidation film and for anodic oxide film produced by an electrochemical process there is no toxic to humans.

So now a lot of industry in order to facilitate machining and reduce the weight of products, and environmental protection requirements, some hard oxidation aluminum alloy parts products are currently to replace stainless steel, and conventional spray, plating treatment process.

Hard oxidation real case:

This customer use our Hard oxidation pulse power supply for aluminum pot hard oxidation, the result is very good. You can see the below surface, the hardness also very good, there is no any scratch on surface even use a knife to cut the aluminum pot hard anodizing surface.

2000A90V Hard oxidation rectifier, using our power supply you can get very good treatment even 2 & 7 series aluminum grade.

Oxidation pulse power supply

Oxidation pulse power supply

Hard oxidation pot using our pulse rectifier

Hard oxidation pot using our pulse rectifier

Hard oxidation pot using our pulse power supply

Hard oxidation pot using our pulse power supply

Electrolytic power supply

Our company specializes in design and manufacture and sale of silicon controlled rectifier, high-frequency switching pulse power, high-power switching power supply, oxidation power supply, electrolysis power supply, electrophoresis rectifier, coloring power supply, electroplating rectifiers, experimental power supply.

High frequency electrolytic power supply description:

1, Can configure a single main cabinet or double main cabinet plus control cabinet structure according to user requirements.
2, When DC output current≥10 KA, adopt full circuit electrically coupled in parallel with the reverse-phase rectifier circuits, drastically reducing the eddy current losses and improve the efficiency of electrolytic power supply.
3, Control mode can be divided into: open loop (manual) and closed loop (automatic) two kinds according to production process requirements, and mutual conversion, DC current output phase number according to harmonic currents standard can be divided into 6,12 24,36 and 48 phase pulse rectifier, eliminating power rectifier 3,5,7 current harmonic pollution on the grid.
4. This series electrolytic power supply with over-current, over voltage, short circuit, under branches, under phase, high water temperature, water pressure, oil temperature and high/low, higher oil pressure protection, fully integrated control loop.
5, Major control board using high anti-interference high-power digital circuit triggers system, has a strong anti-jamming capability. And having advantages of high accuracy control, good stability, reliable operation.
6, Cabinet adopts cutting magnetic link, reducing the eddy current loss, the cabinet with a whole spray plastics.
7, Control methods: integrated analog control and computer control two categories.

High frequency electrolytic power supply application:

Mainly for non-ferrous metal electrolysis: aluminum, magnesium, zinc, lead, copper, manganese and manganese dioxide; gold, silver and other metal smelting; NdFeB rare earth smelting; carbide, diamond smelting; salt water, potassium electrolysis made caustic soda, potash, sodium system; fire electric heating material, as well as other types of high-power DC power supply.

High frequency electrolytic power supply specifications:

Electrolytic power supply output Current: 0-50000A;
Electrolytic power supply output voltage: 0-500V.

Electrolysis power supply

20000A High frequency rectifier

High frequency rectifier 20000A

High frequency rectifier

High frequency rectifier

High frequency rectifier development tendency:

Application in various power systems and power electronics, switching power supply high frequency rectifier technology are all at the core position. For large electrolytic plating power supply, conventional circuit is very large and heavy, if use high frequency rectifier switching mode power supply technology, which will be a significant decline in volume and weight, but also can greatly improve the power utilization efficiency, save materials and reduce costs. Electric vehicles and variable frequency drive, they are more indispensable switching mode high frequency rectifier power supply technology, electricity frequency changed by switching power supply, so can achieve nearly ideal load matching and drive control. High frequency rectifier switching power supply technology, also is all kinds of high-power switching power supply (inverter welding machine, communication power, high-frequency heating power, laser power supply, power supply operation, etc.) core technology.

High frequency rectifier frequency:

Theoretical analysis and practical experience shows that transformers, inductors and capacitors volume weight is inversely proportional to power supply frequency square root. So when we increase the frequency from 50Hz to 20kHz, increase 400 times, then the volume weight of electrical equipment is substantially reduced to 5 ~ 10% of frequency design. Whether inverter rectifier welder, or communication usage power supply switch mode rectifier, all show this basic principle. Similarly, the traditional “rectification industry” electroplating, electrolysis, electrical processing, charging, float charging, power closing with various DC power can also be transformed in accordance with this principle, a “class switching converter power supply”, the main material may save 90% or more, also saving electricity power at least 30% or more. Due to gradually increase the power electronic device operating frequency limit, prompting many of the original tube using conventional solid- frequency equipment, bring significant economic benefit in energy, water, economic saving materials, but also can reflect the value of this technical content.

High frequency rectifier specification and parameter:

High frequency rectifier Input voltage AC 3 phase 380V/415V/440V 50-60Hz
Output voltage 6V/12V/15V/18V/24V/36V/48V optional or according to customers’ request
Output current 0-20000A (Random optional)
Voltage stability ≤1%
Current stability ≤1%
Ripple factor 1%-2%
Efficiency ≥90%
 Stabilization mode Current stabilization/Voltage stabilization (Switchable easily)
Adjustment range Voltage/Current from 0-100% continuously adjustable within rated range
Cooling system Air cooling/Water cooling/Oil cooling
Control method Manual/PLC
Display contents Voltage meter/Current meter/Working/Over temp/Error, etc..
Protection method Input over voltage/Under voltage/Over current/Output short/Over heating self protection etc..
Operating temperature -20-50℃
Ambient temperature -30-65℃
Ambient humidity ≤90%
Working loading Full capacity operation, more than 1,000 meters above sea level, reduced load operation

High frequency rectifier  Packing details:

TypeLength (mm)Width (mm)Height (mm)Weight (kg)
50A/12V3503501508
100A/12V42035015010.5
200A/12V45045020018
300A/12V50050022021
500A/12V50050020025
1000A/12V55050028038
1500A/12V60050075060
2000A/12V60050085088
3000A/12V650700850140
4000A/12V6507001100190
5000A/12V7007001450230
6000A/12V7007001700300

Copper plating line

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Copper plating line

Copper plating line products

Copper plating line process:

Electroless copper plating line is a process for printed circuit board manufacturing, often called sink-copper or PTH, which is a self-catalytic redox reactions. First treatment with activator agent, adsorbed on insulating substrate layer surface of active particles usually as metal palladium particles (palladium is a very expensive metal, the price is high and has been rising, to reduce cost now practical colloidal copper process is in the application), copper ions are first reduced on these active palladium metal particle, which these reduced metal copper nuclei itself has become a copper ion catalyst layer, so that copper reduction proceed on these new copper nuclei surfaces.

Electroless copper plating: traditional copper plating mostly as vertical lines, process are similar, the general process is:
Cleaning → Neutralization → Degreasing → Microetching → Pre-ditching → Activation → Chemical copper plating.

The main components are cathode and anode in copper plating line:

Cathode: giving rise to the starting & end a couple of stainless steel rod having a pair of electrical contact ring, copper brush is pressed against the copper ring in order to get good contact, connected to the negative pole of rectifiers. By retaining roller, the cathode cut off contact with plating solution.
Copper plating line anode: 2 titanium plate installed in plating bath, these two anode pieces connect with positive rectifies pole by electricity cable directly. Anode soaked in chemical plating solution.

Chemical copper plating line principle:

Electroless copper plating on the surface of the catalytic activity by the action of a reducing agent to precipitate the copper ions reduced:
Reduction (cathode) reactions: CuL2 + + 2e- → Cu + L
Oxide (anode) reaction: R → O + 2e-
Thus, with hypophosphite as a reducing agent for chemical copper plating main reaction is: 2H2PO2- + Cu2 + + 2OH- → Cu + 2H2PO3 + H2 ↑
In addition to the establishment of the thermodynamics, chemical reactions must also meet dynamics conditions. Like other chemical copper as the catalytic reaction thermal energy is required to cause a reaction, which is why only when the chemical bath plating deposition get speed plating under certain temperature. Theoretically copper plating speed to express by increasing the concentration of the reaction product of reactant concentrations and reduce the speed. In actual use, the electroless copper plating solution containing certain additives, its have too many factors to effect, the situation becomes too complicated. Thus, most of the electroless copper plating dynamics research is limited to the most basic component of the bath at the start.

And copper plating line rectifiers normally as following specification:

TypeLength (mm)Width (mm)Height (mm)Weight (kg)
50A/12V3503501508
100A/12V42035015010.5
200A/12V45045020018
300A/12V50050022021
500A/12V50050020025
1000A/12V55050028038
1500A/12V60050075060
2000A/12V60050085088
3000A/12V650700850140
4000A/12V6507001100190
5000A/12V7007001450230
6000A/12V7007001700300

Rectifiers for Copper Plating Line

Rectifiers for Copper Plating Line