Difference manual automatic plating production line

Difference manual automatic plating production line:

Difference manual automatic plating production line

Difference manual automatic plating production line

Manual electroplating machines are suitable for precious metal plating, such as nickel, silver, gold, etc.. Manual electroplate machinery has features of design layout flexibility, small footprint, can be both have 2 to 3 processes, which is a plating process can meet a variety parts production.

Semi-automatic electroplating machine is suitable for precision electronics, small hardware pieces of mass production, and the output value is large, good economic returns. The electroplating production lines is to set up rail traffic on the production line, the travelling crane running on rail to transport workpiece for processing in coating bath, and workers hand control driving push-button. The semi automation electroplating machine has been designed the speed of travelling crane and lane and hook, as well as workpiece quantity and area, also with the production cycle and process parameters. So has the advantages of stable products quality, good consistency, high output, and the design load factor can reach up to 85% or more!

Difference manual automatic plating production line:

Auto electroplate machine line (automatic barrel plating line or hanging tool type) are according to a certain electroplating processes that combine the plating tank, electroplating enhance conveyance device, electrical control devices, power equipment, filtration equipment, testing equipment, heating and cooling equipment, air agitation equipment portfolio as a whole, through the mechanical and electrical installation to automatic fulfill the electroplating whole process, which is high production efficiency, and stable product quality.

auto electroplating

Car decoration plastic electro plating

Car decoration plastic electro plating

Nowadays many car appearance adopt decorative electroplating technology, by this not only could add automotive fashion sense, but also can make the whole car full of advanced feeling. However, due to the plating parts on car are usually exposed to outdoor, as well as to experience a variety of environments testing, so car exterior plating process requires very strict technology and evaluation criteria. General automotive Lights will choose electro plating methods based on using conditions, which divided into 4 kinds:

Class U: using condition as rigid, suitable for external decoration;
Class S: using condition as strict, suitable for external decoration;
Class A: using condition as normal, which is suitable for external decoration;
Class B: using condition as relaxation for cases of interior parts.
We will elaborate one of car decorative chromium electroplating processes and test methods as follows.

1, Car decoration plastic electro plating types:

Decorative lights electroplating grade S, which is strict condition for cases of exterior parts, material types as plastic.

2, Car decoration plastic electro plating quality:

2.1, Electroplating method:

On base material through electrolytic copper, nickel, chromium and other elements attached to the surface, makes it has a metallic luster. In addition, the nickel layer is also diveded into several plating method, while this light plating method is double or triple nickel + despersive stress, tiny holes chromium. In double and triple nickel, half lustre nickel layer thickness not less than 1/2 of the total nickel layer thickness.

2.2, Minimum coating thickness:

Thickness measurement method based on microscope, can also use electrolytic film thickness meter. Further, if only for chromium, with a fluorescent X-ray thickness meter is ok. Plating layer thickness measurement site principle should be at a minimum thickness. But if workpiece shape cause coating layer uneven thickness, can change the measurement site after consultation between the parties concerned. Other base material copper electro plating can be instead of nickel plating. Copper thickness should be able to ensure the appearance and thermal cycling resistance. Although the basic material such as different shapes, sizes, forming conditions and other, the copper layer thickness measuring points should be at least 1 times more than thickness of the nickel layer. The minimum thickness requirements of nickel plating and chrome plating shall according to different service environments.

2.3, Appearance:

In room light, 500mm away from test surface for visual. Electroplating surface should be smooth and shiny, and there is no blemish, bulging , injuries, cuts, exposed material, trachoma, not smooth and other anomalies. But this, does not apply to the invisually portion of the vehicle. Determined by the parties concerned to determain limits of the sample, the limit shall for the vehicle spacing at 50cm visual status in the sunlight, the extent of appearance defect is not obvious.

2.4, Corrosion:

Salt spray test (SST): or according to JISZ2371 ASTMB117 continuously conduct. To S-class, A-class, not proceed flying stone test does not rust as qualified. For plastic material, no need conduct salt spray test (SST).

Accelerating weather resistance test (Corrodkote):
Or based on ASTMB380 or JISH8502 to conduct. Can be selected Corrodkote bonding solution as follows: 2.5g copper nitrate (Cu (NO3) 2_3H2O), dissolved in volumetric flask and precisely diluted with distilled water to 500ml, then weigh 2.50g of iron chloride (FeCl3_6H2O), dissolved in a second volumetric flask and accurately diluted to 500ml with distilled water (when not in use, ferric chloride solution should be stored in a dark place stoppered with a rubber or a glass stopper ) ( ferric chloride solution storage time shall not more than 2 weeks, because if storage time too long will cause instability ). Weigh 50.0g ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) then dissolved and diluted to 500ml with distilled water precisely in the volumetric flask. Then accurate measurement 7.0ml copper nitrate solution, 33.0ml ferric chloride solution and 10.0ml ammonium chloride liquor, put these above solution into pour mouth beaker and add 30.0g china clay, the stir with a glass rod. Corrodkote bonding liquid shall be how much used then how much made. Visal can’t see rust and discoloration. However, except for U class, the local corrosion rate at least not more than 10%. For an area less than 25cm2, all corrosion rate shall not exceed 10 %. For S class plating process, accelerating weather resistance test as more than 48 hours.

Coating corrosion resistance test (CASS):
According JISH8502 or ASTMB368 to proceed. Intervals 50cm can not see rusty ( surface rust ), discoloration and so on. For the S class plating process, CASS should be more than 60h or more.

2.5, Hot and cold circulating:

Regarding to S class, basic material as plastic, conduct hot and cold circulating according to following test method, hot and cold circulating cycle is 4 or more, after testing, effective surface not occur expansion, peeling and isolating phenomenon as qualified.
Hot and cold test methods:
Condition as 1 time cycle, principle as after electroplating, place more than 48 hours, conduct this circulation.

2.6, Adhesion:

The adhesion of the plastic substrate according to the following test method, then distance between substrate and the coating layer does not peel off easily. However, criterions are different according to tesing motheds, so shall be determined by the parties concerned. Shall be based on JISH8630 affiliated with 6 or ASTMB533 as a reference. In principle, 48 hours placement after plating, test should according to following steps :
⑴, On coating surface crossed with a sharp blade, blade should be approached basic material.
⑵, In acute angle open the plating layer on cross point.
⑶, In vertical direction of plating surface to pull the opened coating layer. Plastic basic material coating layer adhesion force as, peel amplitude 10mm, with a peeling speed of 30mm/min to test, usually above 9.8N/cm.

2.7, Scalability:

Brightness nickel plating layer scalability, according to ASTMB490 to proceed, should be required above 0.1. Semi brightness nickel electr plating ductility, according to ASTMB490 to conduct, shall be required above 0.4.

3, Technological conditions:

3.1, Double nickel:

⑴, Implement double nickel electroplating: lower layer as semi brightness nickel electroplating, while upper layer as brightness nickel plating.
⑵, Sulfur content on electroplating layer, semi brightness nickel plating of 0~0.005%, while brightness nickel plating as 0.05%~0.07%.

3.2, Triple nickel:

⑴, Based on same as double nickel pating, in the middle of semi brightness and brightness plating layer, to conduct more than 0.6μm middle Ni plating.
⑵, Sulfur content of the intermediate nickel layer at least more than 0.1%.

3.3, Tiny pores chrome plating ( ordinary chrome ):

⑴, The nickel plating layer under the chrome plating layer, to proceed non-electrically conductive fine particles of nickel eutectoid plating, the chrome layer will produce many fine pores.
⑵, Tiny pores over 2000/cm2.

Battery steel shell electro plating

Battery steel shell

1, Pre- treatment process of Battery steel shell electro plating:

Degreasing (chemical method) → Degreasing ( chemical method) → Hot water rinse → Cold water rinse → Unloading → Loading → Hot water rinse → Cold water rinse → Pure water rinse → Derusting → Flowing pure water rinse → Pure water rinse → Deep nickel electro plating

2, Chemical degreasing of Battery steel shell electro plating:

Degreasing solution formular:
Degreaser: g/L————–50
Sodium hydroxide: g/L————–20
T: ℃ —————65 ~ 70
t: min —————≥45

Process operating highlights should include following aspects:
( 1 ) Barrels loading qty and loading volume at best of 2 /3 of barrel volume. If too little, the production efficiency will too small; If too much, the rotation of steel shield inside the barrel will be uneven, then will not good for getting rid of oil and other solid contaminants.

( 2 ) Tank liquid surface level control:
The reason why using pure water with bath is there is many Cr in tap water, when steel shell stays in the air, dehydration is easy to produce rust. The liquid level should higher than barrel. Otherwise, since the steel sheel is a large blind hole L, which is large volume, light weight, therefore inside the blind hole will remain portion gas. Then make some steel shell suspended on liquid surface or internal solution results degreasing effect. With the evaporation of solution, shall add pure water timely.

( 3 ) Oil contamination removal of wave surface:
As production progresses going on, there are many oil contamination will be accumulated on the degreasing liquid, so must remove them promptly. Because the internal solution exists very much small suspended oil droplets, must be removed constantly. Otherwise, if solution suspension too many, the after rinse will bear too much, while will increase the opportunity of taking oil into the solution, and shorten maintenance period, then affecting products quality and production efficiency improving.

( 4 ) Magnetic iron droplets removal:
The steel shells in punching process will produce many magnetic iron, to effectively remove, the barrel speed should as quickly as possible, control within 10 ~ 20r/min, to strengthen the stirring force of barrel; and appropriate increase solution temperature, because high temperature has a certain of weakening effect to magnetic, furthermore in degreasing agent has many surface active agent. And these surface active agents have good affinity effect to metal surface, meanwhile also absorb magnetic scrap iron. Under the condition of high temperature and rotation of barrel, these magnetic scrap iron will be easily peeled from steel shells. In the production process, please do not salvage steel piece or steel shell fall into the tank with a magnet, resulting steel shell internal magnetic reinforce then can not clean and causing rust after plating.

( 5 ) Electroplating solution routine maintenance:
As the production move on, the solution dissolve oil contamination, scrap iron, and some solid waste from steel shells cleaning, as well as the degreasing agent decompose under high temperature, the solution cleaning effect will be deteriorated. Therefore, other than adding pure wanter for liquid level, as well as adding degreaser and caustic soda, should also remove these
suspended solids. But conventional filtration is too much workload, low efficiency, still the effect is not good. Because these solids both big and many, therefore, can add two spare reserve baths, for natural precipitation 2 ~ 3h, then oil contamination floating to solution surface, solid impurity settle to the tank bottom. Cleaning the cleaning tank. Then make the clean solution to original tank, to supply solution liquid level, and continue to production usage, generally it is better treat once every 48 working hours.

3, Hot water rinse to degreasing:

Degreasers: g/L——10
PH: ————— 10 ~ 12
T, ℃: ————– 45 ~ 50
t, min: ————– 3 ~ 5

4, Rinse:

All cleaning water shall replace every shift to keep wash water clean. The purpose of water rinse is to avoid introducing impurities ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+. To control pH2 ~ 3. One more activate steel shell surface, use dilute H2SO4 rather than dilute HCI, in order to avoid a level increasing in plating bath.

5, Loading and unloading:

Degreasing barrel and nickel plating barrel can not be mixed each other, because outside degreasing barrel there sticked many degreaser and caustic soda and small amount of dirt, not easy to washing clean. So the barrel shall exclusive using and make sure surface clean for steel shell and barrel surface before electroplating.

6, Derusting:

Derusting technical processes:
Hydrochloric acid ( chemically ): g/L——————7 ~ 9
Hexamine: g/L ——————3
t, min: —————————- 4 ~ 6
Pure water bath, adding hexamethylenetetramine to prevent partial excessive corrosion for steel shell in derusting process. In general, update every two continuously working weeks .

7, Conclusion:

Pre-treatment is an important step in electro plating process, since it will directly affect the quality of plating. Especially when in deep nickel electroplating for steel shells. When products with high quality requirements, then require more stable, reliable pre-treatment, to ensure high quality plating products.

Battery steel shell electro plating

Battery steel shell electro plating

Anodizing DC rectifier

Anodizing DC rectifier

Aluminum anodizing DC rectifier used in anodic oxidation of aluminum, this technical process is actually a process by mean of electrolytic aluminum surface to make aluminum profile or aluminum alloy profile forming alumina oxidization film. Our rectifiers also have imitation gold electroplating power supply, pulse electroplating rectifiers, high-frequency electro plating power supply, DC voltage stabilization power supply, battery charging power supply, DC motor test power supply, experimental measurement power supply, pulse superposition hard oxidation DC rectifier, special usage silicon AC to DC rectifier, electric furnace heating power supply, high power (electrolysis, oxidation) power supply and some matched power supply equipment etc..

Anodizing DC rectifier

Anodizing DC rectifier

Aluminum anodizing DC rectifier usage:

Aluminum anodizing DC rectifiers applied to aluminum profile (aluminum and aluminum alloy and so on) anodic oxidation treatment.

Aluminum anodizing DC rectifier features:

Has the advantages of small volume, light weight, high efficiency, high control precision, etc..;
Pulse width modulation power introduced international advanced technology, using IGBT power module of the international brand;
Complete protection function, has voltage stabilization & current stabilization working mode, and filtration, over-voltage, overheating, short circuit, phase missing protection functions and soft start.
The power supply adopts special design control system, internal structure of anti acid, anti alkali design, which greatly increase the service life of the product.

We can provide:

a. Digital timing system;
b. Ampere hour meter;
c. Standard interface;
d. Control signal interface.

Aluminum anodizing DC rectifier technical parameters:

Input voltage: three-phase four wire 380V, 415V, 50-60Hz;
DC output current: 100A-30000A can be optional;
Output DC voltage: 3V-1000V arbitrary choice;
Voltage stabilization accuracy: less than or equal to 1%;
Current stabilizing precision: less than or equal to 1%;
The output ripple current: 1%-2%;
Cooling method: forced air cooling or water cooling;
The cooling water quality: ordinary tap water, deionized water (recommended); PH value: 7-8, Water pressure: 0.1-0.25MP, Temperature: 3 degrees -33 degrees;
Load operation: full load run for 24 hours, more than 1000 meters above sea level, reducing the use of capacity;
Working environment: the environment temperature is 10 degrees below zero to 40 degrees; at room temperature (15-25 degrees) of air relative humidity should be less than 90%.

If need better hardness and quality, pulse power supply is good for your choice.

The packing of rectifier and services:

This section aluminum oxidation power supply using standard packaging (for details, please refer to our products packaging instructions).

Plating relevant functions

car electroplating

Plating relevant functions–make use of electrolysis to deposit of good adhesion of the article , but the performance of different materials and the base metal cladding techniques . Than the hot-dip plating layer having a uniform , generally thin, ranging from a few microns to tens of microns . By electroplating , you can get protective and decorative surface layer on the various functions of mechanical products , you can also repair wear and workpiece machining errors .

Moreover , there are different plating relevant functions according to the needs of variety of plating.

For example:
1, Copper plating: bottoming to enhance the plating layer adhesion, and corrosion resistance. ( Copper is easily oxidized, after oxidization, patina is no longer conductive, so copper electroplating products must be done copper plating protection.
2, Nickel electroplating: bottoming or for appearance to enhance corrosion resistance and wear ability, ( which is the modern process wear- ability more over than chrome plating) are no longer use nickel bottoming, mainly due to the nickel magnetic, which will affect the electrical performance of passive intermodulation.
3, Gold-plated: improving conductive contact resistance and enhance signal transmission. ( Gold is the most stable, but also the most expensive material. )
4, Palladium Nickel plating: improving conductive contact resistance, and enhance signal transmission, abrasion resistance is higher than gold.
5, Plating tin-lead: the ability to enhance welding, soon to be replaced by other alternative materials ( now mostly replaced by lead- tin -plated bright and matte tin).
6, Silver plating: to improve the conductive contact resistance and enhance signal transmission. (Silver has the best performance, but easily to be oxidized, and still can conduct after oxide).Electroplating is a method which using the principle electrolytic to cover a metal layer on conductive.

In addition to the conductive, plating also can be used for plastic cement after special handling.

The basic process of electroplating as follows:

Connected the plating metal  on anode, while the be plated metal connected on cathode.
Connection between anode and cathode by connection by electrolyte solution composed by metal positive inos. Powered by DC current, the anode metal will be oxidized (loss of electrons), while positive ions in solution will reduction in cathode ( to obtain electron) and become atomic and accumulate on cathode surface.
After electroplating, the to be plated workpiece appearance related to current size, the smaller the current, the workpiece will be more beautiful appearance; otherwise it will appear a number of uneven shapes.
The main purpose of plating mainly including preventing of metal oxide ( e.g rust ) as well as decoration. The outer layer of coin is also a plating .
Waste water in plating process  (e.g ineffective electrolyte) is the biges source of water pollution.

Plating technology process has been widely used in the semiconductor and microelectronics technology components of the lead frame.
VCP: vertical continuous plating, the new machine which circuit boards adopted is more better quality than traditional hanging plating.

Partially silver electroplating:

Aluminum plating solution formulation process:

High-temperature acid weak base etching → Rinse →Acid picking ​​→ Rinse→ Zincate →Rinse → Second zincating→ Rinse → Pre copper plating → Rinse → Rinse → ​​Cyanide silver plating ​​→ Recycling rinse→ Rinse → Brightness dipping → Rinse → ​​drying.
From the plating process we can tell, the material must be high temperature resistance ( about 80 ℃), alkali resisting, acid resisting, secondary, the protective material can be easily peeled off after the silver plating.

Electroplating fundamental concept

Electro plating Fundamental conceptFundamental concept:

When under plating, coating layer or other insoluble material called as anode, workpiece to be plated called as cathode, the plating layer metal’s anode to be restored to form electroplating layer on workpiece. To exclude the interference of other anode, and to make sure coating layer uniformity, strong, should use plating solution which with plating layer metal anodes, in order to maintain constant layer anode concentration. The purpose of plating is to plate metal layer on base material to change base material plate property and size. Plating can enhance metal corrosion resistance (plating layer most adpot corrosion resistant metal), increase hardness, abrasion prevention,  and can improve conductivity, lubricity, heat resistance and surface appearance.




Electroplating is to make usage of electrolytic principle to plate a thin layer of metal or alloy on some kinds of metals’ surface, which is a technology by means of electrolytic action to adhese metal file on metals or other material surface, in order to prevent metal oxides (eg rust), improve abrasion resistance, electrical conductivity, reflectivity and enhance aesthetic effects. Many coin outer layer are plated.

Gold electroplating technology process

Gold electroplating technology process

Gold electroplating technology process is widely used in various fields of national production, only by means of carefully operations to obtain effectively energy saving, protect the environment.A brief introduction of basic knowledge about the plating technology will be provided as following.Plating process category: Acid bright copper, Plating, Nickel/Gold electroless, Tin electroplating, Gold electroplating technology process…

Gold electroplating technical process:

Pickling → Entire board copper plating → Acidic degreasing → Microetching → Pickling → Tin plating → Pickling → Graphics copper electroplating → Nickle plating → Leaching citric acid→ Electrogilding

Gold plating

Gold plating

Gold electroplating technology process description of flows:

(1) Pickling:
① Function and purpose:
Removing the plate surface oxide, activated the plate surface, usually at a concentration of about 5% to 10%, mainly to prevent instability of sulfuric acid from bath water entering.
② Use C.P grade sulfuric acid, leaching time should not too long, to prevent oxidation of the board;
After a period of time, if the acid appears cloudy or copper content is too high shall replace in time, preventing plating copper cylinder and the plate surface pollution.

(2) Entire board copper plating:

① Function and purpose:
To protec thin chemical copper which is just deposited, to prevent etching from pickling, by means of plating to add to a certain of thickness.
② Entire board copper plating correponding parameters:
Bath solution main ingredients are copper sulfate and sulfuric acid, using high acid and low copper formulation, to ensure board surface uniformity and thickness distribution and deep plating ability for the deep hole;
Sulfuric acid content in more than 180 to 240g/liter;
Copper sulfate content is generally at 75g/liter, the bath solution may have trace amounts of chloride ions, as auxiliary brightener and copper light agent work together to get gloss effect;
Copper brightener additive amount at 3 ~ 5ml/L, the supplement generally in accordance with Kiloampere hours or actual effect board production;
Entire board plating current fomular is: 2A/dm multiplied by the area of the board can be plated;
Copper cylinder temperature control within 22 to 32℃.
③ Maintenance:
According to a Kiloampere hours to replenish copper brightener daily;
Check if the filter pump is working properly;
Using clean wet duster cloth to clean cathode conductive rod every 2-3 hours;
Weekly analyze and through Hall cell test regularly to adjust brightness agent levels and replenish in time;
Clean anode conductive rods, electrical connectors at both ends, replenish titanium anode copper ball in the basket weekly;
Titanium anode baskets bags should be checked for damaging and replace in time monthly, and check whether the titanium anode basket has accumulated anode mud;
Every six months in accordance with bath solution pullution condition to determine whether need large cleanning;
Every two weeks to replace the filter pump filter element.
④ Anode copper ball contains a small amount of phosphorus, the purpose is to reduce the efficiency of the anodic dissolution to reduce generation of copper powder.
⑤When suppling, if adding a large amount of copper sulfate or sulfuric acid, should be supplemented with a few slow steps, otherwise it will cause the bath temperature too high, brightness agents decomposition accelerated, and contaminate bath solution.

(3) Acidic degreasing:
① Function and purpose:
Remove the oxide of circuit coppoer surface, to ensure a bonding strength between copper panel plating with graphics copper electroplating or nickel.
② Adopt acidic degreasers, when under production only control concentration and time is enough.

(4) Microetching:
①Function and purpose:
Cleanning coarsening circuit copper surface, to make sure bonding strength between graphics copper plating with copper panel electroplating.
② Microetching agent using sodium persulfate.

(5) Pickling:
① Function and purpose:
Removing oxide of plate surface, to prevent instability of sulfuric acid from bath water entering.
② Use C.P grade sulfuric acid for pickling, leaching time should not too long, to prevent oxidation of the board.

(6) Graphics copper electroplating, also called as copper panel plating.
Function and purpose:
In order to meet the rated current of each line, each line plating and the aperture copper need to achieve a certain of thickness, line copper plating means to thicken the aperture copper and line plating to a certain thickness.

(7) Tin plating:
① Function and purpose:
Graphic pure tin plating purpose is to use pure tin as metal resist layer to protect the lines from etching.
② Bath solution mainly constituted by stannous mono-sulphate, sulfuric acid, and other additives;
The content of stannous mono-sulphate controlled within 35g/liter, while sulfuric acid about 10%;
Tin electroplating additive generally added in accordance with Kiloampere hours or supplemented according to the actual production of board;
The current calculation for tin plating typically ranges from 1.5A/dm multiplied by the board electroplating area;
Tin cylinder tank temperature should be maintained at room temperature, generally controlled at 22 to 30℃, so in the summer season due to high temperature, then cooling system shall be considered to install.
③ Maintenance:
Replenish tin additive agents according to kiloampere hours daily;
Check whether the filter pump is working properly;
Every 2 to 3 hours to clean cathode conductive rod with cleanning wet duster cloth;
Regularly analyze through the Hall cell test to adjust tin electroplating additive content weekly;
Clean anode conductive rods, electrical connectors at both ends;
Titanium anode baskets bags should be checked for damaging and replace in time monthly, and check whether the titanium anode basket has accumulated anode mud;
Every two weeks to replace the filter pump filter element.
④ Supplement medicines procedure as above, no details again.

(8) Nickle plating:
① Function and purpose:
Nickel plating mainly purpose as barrier layer between copper layer with gold layer, to prevent interpenetrate gold and copper, then impact board weldability working life;
Meanwhile bottoming with nickel layer will greatly increases the mechanical strength of the gold layer.
② Entire board copper plating process related parameters:
Nickel electroplating additives adding generally in accordance with kiloampere hours or based on actual board effective production, adding amount approximately as 200ml/KAH;
Graphics nickel plating current calculation general according to 2A/dm multiplied board electroplating area;
Nickel cylinder tank temperature maintained between 40 to 55℃.

③ Maintenance:
Replenish tin additive agents according to kiloampere hours daily;
Check whether the filter pump is working properly;
Every 2 to 3 hours to clean cathode conductive rod with cleanning wet duster cloth;
Regularly analyze through the Hall cell test to adjust tin electroplating additive content weekly;
Clean anode conductive rods, electrical connectors at both ends, replenish anode angle square in titanium basket, using low current for electrolysising of 6 to 8 hours;
Titanium anode baskets bags should be checked for damaging and replace in time monthly, and check whether the titanium anode basket has accumulated anode mud;
Every two weeks to replace the filter pump filter element.
④ Supplement medicines procedure as above, no details again.

(9) Electrogilding:
Divided into hard gold plating and water gold process, bath solution compositions basically the same, while hard gold bath has a few more trace metals nickel, cobalt, iron and other elements.
① Function and purpose:
Gold is a precious metal, has functions of weldability, oxidation resistance, corrosion resistance, small contact resistance, good wear characteristics alloy.
② PCB gold plating bath mainly as citric gold bath, simple maintenance, easy to operate.
③ Water gold content controlled in 1g/liter, pH value of about 4.5, temperature around 35℃.
④ The main additive as acid type adjustment salt, alkali type adjustment salt, conductive salt, gilded gold additives and other gold salt ect..
⑤ After plating gold plate should use pure water as water as recycling water, but can also be used to supplement the gold cylinder evaporation level changes.
⑥ Gold cylinder adopt platinum titanium mesh as the anode.
⑦ Gold syliner organic pollution gold shall use carbon core for continuous filtration, meanwhile adding the right amount of gold plating additives.

Hard chrome machine plating process procedures

A, Plating processes introduction:

Hard chrome machine plating process procedures is a technology that coat a thick plating layer in a variety of matrix surfaces, its thickness generally more than 20μm , which making the use of chrome characteristic to improve parts performance of hardness, wear resistance , heat and corrosion resistance and other properties.

Hard chrome plating technological characteristics:

1)  Cathode current efficiency as high as 50 % to 65% , and the deposition rate very quickly;
2)  Coating layer hardness as (900 ~ 1200 HV), appear to homogeneously dense network cracks, has feature of good wear resistance;
3)  Electroplating solution dispersing ability good, coating thickness uniformity, and not easy to produce rough blister aneurysm phenomenon, which the plating layer appearance looks bright and green;
4)  The binding force between coating layer and the substrate is strong, and compare with traditional process, the pre-treatment similar and operating easier than the traditional process;
5)  Trivalent chromium content allowed tolerance in plating solution is wide, usually do not require discontinuation electrolysis to treatment trivalent chromium;
6)  Plating solution does not contain fluoride, excluding rare earth elements, and the workpiece without low zone corrosion.

Hard chromium has a very wide application, such as mechanical molds, cylinder piston, measuring, cutting and drawing tools. Its other usage is for repairing of worn parts and workpiece with excessive cutting, so that these parts can be reused.

B, Simple technical processes:

Inspection—degreasing—water washing rinse—antipole—chrome plating—water washing—testing.

C, Technological parameters:

1, Chromic anhydride:(CrO3) 220 ~ 250g/L
2, Sulfate (SO42-): 2.2 ~ 2.5g/L
3, Trivalent chromium (Cr3+): 2 ~ 5g/L
4, Plating solution temperature: 50 ~ 55℃
5, Cathode current density: 30 ~ 60A/dm2

D, Operations and precautions

1, Workpieces size inspection before plating, machining surface conditions, according to the coating thickness to calculate the plating time accurately.
2, Good controling of the electroplating solution working conditions, observation frequently, pay attention to temperature changes, level changes, careful operation, fill out the operating record. According to the result to add medicine, then correct plating solution.
3, Check the quality of the coating layer after plating, size, clean, wire teeth, inside bore and other parts rust protection. Steel workpiece strike operating grade of steel, deburring edges.
4, If the acid spilled on the skin, should immediately rinse and clean with water.

Hard chrome machine plating process procedures

Hard chrome machine plating process procedures

5 necessary auxiliary machines for electroplating industry

5 necessary auxiliary machines for electroplating industry:

Filter and recycle filter equipment:

In order to ensure electroplating quality, the plating solution is required to filter regularly. While filter is the most commonly used filtration device in the chemical industry, and some kinds of electroplating also required ceaselessly cycling filtration on running. We can select the right filter based on plating situation and electroplating bath size as well as technological requirements.

Plating machine Filter

Plating machine Filter

Cathode moving or agitation device:

Some or most of plating, the cathode shall in condition of moving states, then the operating current can be increased, while bath solution give deserved function (usually brightness and dispersion capacity), and can prevent from cusp, corner gross plated, charred. But some types of plating can use equipment or agitation device to replace cathode moving. Mechanical agitation is a mixer which made of corrosion-resistant material, usually, it is driven by motor, but its speed is can not too high. While air stirring adopts the deoiled compressed air after filtering.


Heating or cooling machines:

Because of plating solution working at a certain temperature, so electroplating bath shall be equipped with heating devices. For example, temperature of brightness nickel plating should be maintained at 50 ℃, while chrome plating temperature is 50 ~ 60 ℃, but brightness acidity copper electroplating or brightness silver plating required temperature within 30 ℃. Thus, these requirements shall be met by means of heat exchange machinery. For heating, normally use direct heating method.

Plating bath:

Plating bath must be equipped with accessories including anode and anode or anode baskets or anode hook, electrode rods , power cables, etc..
Most anode basket used titanium as material, a few species electroplating adopt stainless steel or steel.
Electrode rod is conductive rod which used for hanging anode and cathode and also connected to power source. Usually made of copper or brass rod, slightly longer than the plating bath, the diameter size according to the current demand, but the diameter at least more than 5cm.
The key function of power cable is to ensure can go through needed current. The best material is copper plate, also multi-strand cable can be adopted, but cross sectional area requirements must be complied with.

plating bath

Plating bath

Plating hanger:

Hanger is the most important auxiliary tools for electroplating process. It is tool not only to make sure plating workpiece connected with cathode, but also has a direct impact on coating layer distribution and efficiency. Now there are professional hanger suppliers to offer general design hanger and also can customize according to users’ special requirements.

plating hanger

Plating hanger